The search for radioprotectors is an ambitious goal with many practical applications. Particularly, the improvement of human radioresistance for space is an important task, which comes into view with the recent successes in the space industry. Currently, all radioprotective drugs can be divided into two large groups differing in their effectiveness depending on the type of exposure. The first of these is radioprotectors, highly effective for pulsed, and some types of relatively short exposure to irradiation. The second group consists of long-acting radioprotectors. These drugs are effective for prolonged and fractionated irradiation. They also protect against impulse exposure to ionizing radiation, but to a lesser extent than short-acting radioprotectors. Creating a database on radioprotectors is a necessity dictated by the modern development of science and technology. We have created an open database, Radioprotectors.org, containing an up-to-date list of substances with proven radioprotective properties. All radioprotectors are annotated with relevant chemical and biological information, including transcriptomic data, and can be filtered according to their properties. Additionally, the performed transcriptomics analysis has revealed specific transcriptomic profiles of radioprotectors, which should facilitate the search for potent radioprotectors.