Upregulation of the forkhead box protein Q1 (FOXQ1) promotes bladder cancer (BCa) cell growth and metastasis. Factors affecting FOXQ1 expression at the post-transcriptional level have not yet been identified. We performed cell proliferation, cell invasion, and tumorigenesis experiments to characterize the relationship between FOXQ1 and miR-140-3p. We found that FOXQ1 was significantly upregulated and miR-140-3p was significantly downregulated in BCa tissues. We also identified an inverse correlation between miR-140-3p and FOXQ1 expression in BCa tissues. Overexpression of miR-140-3p reduced FOXQ1 expression, suppressing BCa cell proliferation and invasion. A luciferase assay confirmed that miR-140-3p bound to the 3’-UTR of FOXQ1 mRNA and decreased its expression. In addition, we used a mouse xenograft model to demonstrate that miR-140-3p suppressed tumor cell growth in vivo. Our findings suggest that miR-140-3p suppresses BCa cell proliferation and invasion by directly decreasing FOXQ1 expression.