Accumulating lines of evidence indicate that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of human cancers, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, the influences of hsa_circ_0081534 upon the pathogenesis and dynamics of NPC are undescribed. In this study, we identified a circRNA hsa_circ_0081534 was significantly upregulated in NPC tissues and cell lines. Inhibition of hsa_circ_0081534 induced a decrease in NPC cells proliferation and invasion in vitro, and repressed tumor growth in vivo. In mechanism, hsa_circ_0081534 promoted NPC progression by sponging miR-508-5p. Fibronectin 1 (FN1) is a target gene of miR-508-5p. In addition, rescue assays showed that FN1 overexpression (or miR-508-5p inhibitors) abolished the roles of hsa_circ_0081534 inhibition on NPC cells proliferation and invasion. Therefore, hsa_circ_0081534 promoted the proliferation, and invasion of NPC cells via regulating the miR-508-5p/FN1 axis. Our findings suggested that hsa_circ_0081534 could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of NPC patients.