Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 22869—22891

Global burden and trend of acute lymphoblastic leukemia from 1990 to 2017

Ming Yi1, *, , Linghui Zhou2, *, , Anping Li3, , Suxia Luo3, , Kongming Wu1,3, ,

  • 1 Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China
  • 2 Bone Marrow Transplantation Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
  • 3 Department of Medical Oncology, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
* Equal contribution

Received: May 6, 2020       Accepted: August 14, 2020       Published: November 16, 2020
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2020 Yi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is a common malignant hematologic disease that is characterized by large numbers of dedifferentiated lymphoid cells. Statistical data of ALL's incidence and mortality are fundamental for policymakers to allocate resources optimally. In this study, we reported the incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life year (DALY) of ALL in the globe from 1990 to 2017. Our analysis showed that the incidence case of ALL increased by 30.81%, while the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) maintained stable. Subgroup analysis by social-demographic index (SDI) showed that ALL's ASIR was significantly decreased in high SDI countries, but were moderately increased in high-middle SDI countries. The change trends of age-standardized death rate and DALY rate were similar to ASIR trends. Subgroup analysis by age groups showed that children and the elderly were more likely to suffer ALL. Risk factor analysis demonstrated that smoking was the most significant contributor to ALL's death and DALY in the globe. Besides, the high body-mass index is playing an increasingly important role in ALL-caused mortality. Multiple methods to counteract potential risk factors should be adopted, such as controlling body-mass index in all regions and avoiding occupational exposure to carcinogens in low SDI countries.


ALL: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia; GBD: Global burden disease; DALY: disability-adjusted life year; SDI: Socio-demographic Index; ASIR: age-standardized incidence rate; ASDR: age-standardized death rate; EAPC: estimated annual percentage change; ASR: age-standardized rate.