Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is an endangered mammalian species. Exploring immune and metabolic changes that occur in giant pandas with age is important for their protection. In this study, we systematically investigated the physiological and biochemical indicators in blood, as well as the transcriptome, and methylation profiles of young, adult, and old giant pandas. The white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil (NEU) counts and hemoglobin (HGB) concentrations increased significantly with age (young to adult), and some indicators related to blood glucose and lipids also changed significantly with age. In the transcriptome analysis, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found in comparisons of the young and adult (257), adult and old (20), young and old (744) groups. Separation of the DEGs into eight profiles according to the expression trend using short time-series expression miner (STEM) software revealed that most DEGs were downregulated with age. Functional analysis showed that most DEGs were associated with disease and that these DEGs were also associated with the immune system and metabolism. Furthermore, gene methylation in giant pandas decreased globally with age, and the expression of CCNE1, CD79A, IL1R1, and TCF7 showed a highly negative correlation with their degree of methylation. These results indicate that the giant panda’s immune function improves gradually with age (young to adult), and that changes in the methylation profile are involved in the effects of age on immune and metabolic functions. These results have important implications for the understanding and conservation of giant pandas.