Research Paper Volume 12, Issue 22 pp 23351—23378
Cognitive reserve and network efficiency as compensatory mechanisms of the effect of aging on phonemic fluency
- 1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Psychobiology and Methodology, Faculty of Health Science, Section of Psychology and Speech Therapy, University of La Laguna, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain
- 2 Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
Received: January 19, 2020 Accepted: October 12, 2020 Published: November 17, 2020https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202177
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2020 Burgos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Compensation in cognitive aging is a topic of recent interest. However, factors contributing to cognitive compensation in functions such as phonemic fluency (PF) are not completely understood. Using cross-sectional data, we investigated cognitive reserve (CR) and network efficiency in young (32-58 years) versus old (59-84 years) individuals with high versus low performance in PF. ANCOVA was used to investigate the interaction between CR, age, and performance in PF. Random forest and graph theory analyses were conducted to study the contribution of cognition to PF and efficiency measures, respectively. Higher CR increased performance in PF and reduced age-related differences in PF. A slightly higher number of cognitive functions contributed to performance in high CR groups. The networks were more integrated in high CR individuals, both in the older age and high-performance groups. The strength and segregation of the networks were decreased in high-performance groups with high CR. We conclude that PF decreases less with age in individuals with higher CR, possibly due to a greater capacity to recruit non-linguistic cognitive networks, and efficient use of language networks, thereby integrating information in a rapid way across less fragmented networks. High CR and network efficiency seem to be important factors for cognitive compensation.