In an effort to identify a novel microRNA (miRNA) as a gastric cancer (GC) treatment target and prognostic biomarker, we surveyed The Cancer Genome Atlas database and found that miR-588 expression is low in GC tissues. This was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays of GC patient plasma samples and SGC7901 and MNK28 cells. A constructed miRNA-mRNA network showed that CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 are target genes of miR-588. Analysis of the miRWalk database revealed that miR-588 directly binds to CXCL5 and CXCL9. Overexpression of miR-588 reduced GC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. High expression of miR-588 inhibited Ki-67 expression in vivo. The FunRich database also showed that CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 are involved in immune responses, while the Database of Immune Cell Expression showed they are differentially expressed in CD8+ T cells. High expression of CXCL9 and CXCL10 correlated positively with infiltrating levels of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells in stomach adenocarcinoma. High expression of miR-588, CXCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 was associated with prolonged survival of GC patients. These findings indicate that miR-588 is a biomarker for tumor-associated immune infiltration and a prognostic marker in GC patients.