Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) is a syndrome in middle-aged and elderly men caused by age-related testosterone deficiency. Age-related change of total testosterone (TT) of Asian males is different from Caucasian population, suggesting difference for LOH identification in Asians. A nationwide cross-sectional study involving six centers in China was conducted. Totally 6296 men aged 40-79 were recruited. After exclusions 5980 men were left for analyses. The serum TT level, was neither decreased with aging nor correlated with most hypogonadal symptoms. Instead, ten hypogonadal symptoms were found to be significantly correlated with free testosterone and testosterone secretion index, thus were chosen to form a concise scale. Further analysis identified a level of free testosterone <210 pmol/L, testosterone secretion index <1.8, and the concise scale score ≧17 could be diagnosed as having significantly aggravated LOH. This study developed an evidence-based criteria for LOH identification in Chinese population and may be adopted in other Asians. It includes the impaired testosterone secretion ability and deficiency of bioavailable testosterone, which should be the main cause in LOH pathogenesis despite normal TT levels, as well as correlated multiple hypogonadal symptoms. Our results may guide the LOH treatment to increase testicular function of testosterone secretion and bioavailable testosterone.