Acute ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced brain injury is further exacerbated by a series of slower secondary pathogenic events, including delayed apoptosis due to neurotrophic factor deficiency. Neuritin, a neurotrophic factor regulating nervous system development and plasticity, is a potential therapeutic target for treatment of IR injury. In this study, Neuritin-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice were produced by pronuclear injection and offspring with high overexpression used to generate a line with stable inheritance for testing the neuroprotective capacity of Neuritin against transient global ischemia (TGI). Compared to wild-type mice, transgenic mice demonstrated reduced degradation of the DNA repair factor poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1 (PARP 1) in the hippocampus, indicating decreased hippocampal apoptosis rate, and a greater number of surviving hippocampal neurons during the first week post-TGI. In addition, Tg mice showed increased expression of the regeneration markers NF-200, synaptophysin, and GAP-43, and improved recovery of spatial learning and memory. Our findings exhibited that the window of opportunity of neural recovery in Neuritin transgenic mice group had a tendency to move ahead after TGI, which indicated that Neuritin can be used as a potential new therapeutic strategy for improving the outcome of cerebral ischemia injury.