α-MSH is known for melanogenesis stimulation, and ceRNA is a new method involved in physiological regulation. However, whether ceRNA participates in α-MSH-induced melanogenesis remains unknown. We used ceRNA array to detect the expression profiles of lncRNAs, circRNAs, and mRNAs in melanocytes after α-MSH treatment. Moreover, the melanogenesis-related ceRNA regulatory networks were screened and validated. The expression profile analysis showed that 20 lncRNAs and 49 circRNAs changed five-fold after α-MSH treatment, while 933 mRNAs changed two-fold. Based on differentially expressed genes, GO and KEGG analysis were conducted and revealed that 14 genes were enriched in melanogenesis. Then, multiple lncRNA or circRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA networks and lncRNA/circRNA-miRNA-mRNA quaternary ceRNA networks were identified. Thereinto, ENST00000606533, circ_0091223, and TYR expression were upregulated in α-MSH-treated melanocytes, while their complementary miR-1291 was decreased. Dual-luciferase reporter assay further verified that ENST00000606533 and circ_0091223 could bind to miR-1291. ENST00000606533 and circ_0091223 siRNAs decreased circ_0091223, ENST00000606533, and TYR expression, but increased miR-1291 expression. Conversely, miR-1291 mimics inhibited ENST00000606533, circ_0091223, and TYR expression. Moreover, miR-1291 inhibitor could reverse the inhibitory effect of the two siRNAs on TYR expression. Hence, the “ENST00000606533/circ_0091223-miR-1291-TYR” ceRNA network is involved in α-MSH-induced melanogenesis, and ceRNA networks may be potential therapeutic targets for skin pigmentation disorders.