Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a median age of 65-70 years at diagnosis. Elderly patients have more chemoresistant disease, and this is partly due to decreased frequencies of favorable and increased frequencies of adverse genetic abnormalities. However, aging-dependent differences may also contribute. We therefore compared AML cell proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiles for (i) elderly low-risk and younger low-risk patients with favorable genetic abnormalities; and (ii) high-risk patients with adverse genetic abnormalities and a higher median age against all low-risk patients with lower median age. Elderly low-risk and younger low-risk patients showed mainly phosphoproteomic differences especially involving transcriptional regulators and cytoskeleton. When comparing high-risk and low-risk patients both proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies showed differences involving cytoskeleton and immunoregulation but also transcriptional regulation and cell division. The age-associated prognostic impact of cyclin-dependent kinases was dependent on the cellular context. The protein level of the adverse prognostic biomarker mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) showed a similar significant upregulation both in elderly low-risk and elderly high-risk patients. Our results suggest that molecular mechanisms associated with cellular aging influence chemoresistance of AML cells, and especially the cytoskeleton function may then influence cellular hallmarks of aging, e.g. mitosis, polarity, intracellular transport and adhesion.