Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 3 pp 4428—4451

Tsukushi is a novel prognostic biomarker and correlates with tumor-infiltrating B cells in non-small cell lung cancer

Hao Huang1, , Ding Zhang1, , Jinming Fu1, , Liyuan Zhao1, , Dapeng Li1, , Hongru Sun1, , Xinyan Liu1, , Jing Xu1, , Tian Tian1, , Lei Zhang1, , Ying Liu1, , Yuanyuan Zhang1, , Yashuang Zhao1, ,

  • 1 Department of Epidemiology, Public Health College, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, People’s Republic of China

Received: June 9, 2020       Accepted: November 3, 2020       Published: January 10, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Huang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


A recent study has reported that tsukushi (TSKU) may be related to the development of lung cancer. However, few studies focused on if TSKU associated with the prognosis and immune infiltration cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The effect of TSKU expression on prognosis with NSCLC was analyzed in the PrognoScan database and validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas. The composition of tumor infiltrating cells was quantified by methylation and expression data. We combined levels of tumor infiltrating cells with TSKU to evaluate the survival of patients. The analysis of a cohort (GSE31210, N=204) of lung cancer patients demonstrated that high TSKU expression was strongly associated with poor overall survival (P =1.90E-05). The combination of high TSKU expression and low infiltration B cells identified a subtype of patients with poor survival in NSCLC. Besides, the proportion of B cells in NSCLC patients with TSKU hypermethylation were higher than those patients with TSKU hypomethylation (P <0.001). Overall, high TSKU expression combined with low infiltration of B cells may associate with a poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. TSKU might be a potential prognostic biomarker involved in tumor immune infiltration in NSCLC.


ACC: Adrenocortical Carcinoma; BGN: Biglycan; BRCA: Breast Invasive Carcinoma; CHOL: Cholangiocarcinoma; CI: Confidence Interval; COAD: Colon Adenocarcinoma; Cp: Constrained Projection; DC: Dendritic Cell; DCN: Decorin; DFS: Disease-Free Survival; DLBC: Lymphoid Neoplasm Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma; ECM: Extracellular Matrix; EMT: Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition; EpiDISH: Epigenetic Dissection of Intra Sample Heterogeneity; GEPIA: Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis; HR: Hazard Ratio; KICH: Kidney Chromophobe; KIRC: Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma; LGG: Brain Lower Grade Glioma; LIHC: Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma; LUAD: Lung Adenocarcinoma; LUSC: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma; MESO: Mesothelioma; Metil Score: Metil Markers into A Score; Metil: Methylation of Til; NK: Natural Killer; NSCLC: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; OS: Overall Survival; PAAD: Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; PRAD: Prostate Adenocarcinoma; READ: Rectum Adenocarcinoma; SLRP: Secreted Small Leucine-Rich Repeat Proteoglycan; STAD: Stomach Adenocarcinoma; TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas; Tfh: Follicular Helper T; Th1: T Helper 1; Th17: T Helper 17; Th2: T Helper 2; THCA: Thyroid Carcinoma; TIIC: Tumor-Infiltrating Immune Cell; TIL: Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte; TIMER: Tumor Immune Estimation Resource; Treg: T Regulatory Cell; TSKU: Tsukushi; UCEC: Uterine Corpus Endometrial Carcinoma; UVM: Uveal Melanoma.