Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 2 pp 1765—1772
Screening of Alzheimer’s disease by facial complexion using artificial intelligence
- 1 Department of Geriatric Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
- 2 Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan
- 3 Institute of Gerontology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
- 4 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Kiyose, Japan
- 5 Center for Dementia, Fukujuji Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association, Kiyose, Japan
- 6 Institute for Future Initiatives, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
Received: November 3, 2020 Accepted: December 10, 2020 Published: January 25, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.202545
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Umeda-Kameyama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Despite the increasing incidence and high morbidity associated with dementia, a simple, non-invasive, and inexpensive method of screening for dementia is yet to be discovered. This study aimed to examine whether artificial intelligence (AI) could distinguish between the faces of people with cognitive impairment and those without dementia.121 patients with cognitive impairment and 117 cognitively sound participants were recruited for the study. 5 deep learning models with 2 optimizers were tested. The binary differentiation of dementia / non-dementia facial image was expressed as a “Face AI score”. Xception with Adam was the model that showed the best performance. Overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy by the Xception AI system and AUC of the ROC curve were 87.31%, 94.57%, 92.56%, and 0.9717, respectively. Close and significant correlations were found between Face AI score and MMSE (r = −0.599, p < 0.0001). Significant correlation between Face AI score and chronological age was also found (r = 0.321, p < 0.0001). However, MMSE score showed significantly stronger correlation with Face AI score than chronological age (p < 0.0001). The study showed that deep learning programs such as Xception have the ability to differentiate the faces of patients with mild dementia from that of patients without dementia, paving the way for future studies into the development of a facial biomarker for dementia.