Infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) confront an increased miscarriage rate in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Genetic abnormality is the most important factor. However, the effects of DOR and female age on the molecular karyotype of products of conception (POCs) remain unknown. We analyzed POCs using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray from women with DOR who experienced first-trimester miscarriage in IVF/ICSI cycles. The SNP microarray revealed chromosomal abnormalities in 74.6% (47/63) of POCs, including trisomy in 83.0% (39/47). Chromosomal aberrations were more frequent in women older than 32 years old with DOR than in young women aged 20–32 years old (86.7% vs. 44.4%, P = 0.001). Univariate and multivariable analyses identified advanced age as a risk factor for chromosomal aberration-related miscarriage in women with DOR, with odds ratios of 8.125 (95% CI: 2.291–28.820, P = 0.001) and 5.867 (95% CI: 1.395–24.673, P = 0.016), respectively. The results showed that older women (older than 32 years old) with DOR had a high risk of miscarrying a chromosomally aberrant embryo/fetus, regardless of basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), antral follicle count (AFC) and previous reproductive history. This finding indicates a novel cut-off value of age for women with DOR related to chromosomal aberration-related miscarriage.