Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 13 pp 17177—17189
Carbon nanotubes (CNT)-loaded ginsenosides Rb3 suppresses the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in triple-negative breast cancer
- 1 Department of Breast Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, Jilin, China
- 2 Department of Ultrasound, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, Jilin, China
- 3 Department of Hepatobiliary Pancreatic Surgery, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130033, Jilin, China
Received: December 29, 2020 Accepted: April 29, 2021 Published: June 10, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203131
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Luo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), as advanced nanotechnology with specific properties and structures, have presented practical drug delivery properties. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a component of puffed ginseng and demonstrates anti-cancer activities. To explore the effect of CNTs-loaded Rg3 (Rg3-CNT) on the PD-1/PD-L1 signaling and the development of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Our data revealed that Rg3 inhibited the cell viability of TNBC cells, in which Rg3-CNT further enhanced this effect in the system. Similarly, the colony formation of TNBC cells was decreased by Rg3, while Rg3-CNT could reinforce its effect in the cells. Besides, the treatment of Rg3 induced apoptosis of TNBC cells, in which Rg3-CNT treatment further increased the phenotype in the cells. Remarkably, Rg3-CNT, but not Rg3, attenuated PD-L1 expression in TNBC cells. Rg3-CNT decreased the PD-L1 upregulation induced by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in breast cancer cells. Importantly, Rg3-CNT was able to reduce PD-1 expression in activated T cells. Specifically, Rg3-CNT reduced the PD-1/PD-L1 axis in a T cell/triple-negative TNBC cell co-culture system. Moreover, the levels of IFN-γ, interleukins-2 (IL-2), interleukins-9 (IL-9), interleukins-10 (IL-10), interleukins-22 (IL-22), and interleukins-23 (IL-23) were significantly stimulated in the activated T cells, while the treatment of Rg3-CNT could reverse these phenotypes in the cells. Rg3-CNT attenuated the TNBC cell growth in vivo. The Rg3-CNT improved the anti-cancer effect of Rg3 toward TNBC by inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. Our finding provides new insights into the mechanism by which Rg3-CNT attenuates the development of TNBC. Rg3-CNT may be applied as the potential therapeutic strategy for immunotherapy of TNBC.