Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 12 pp 16567—16576
Reduced stem cell aging in exercised human skeletal muscle is enhanced by ginsenoside Rg1
- 1 Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, University of Taipei, Taipei City 11153, Taiwan, ROC
- 2 Department of Anesthesiology, Far East Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City 220, Taiwan, ROC
- 3 School of Health and Life Sciences, Teesside University, Middlesbrough TS1 3BX, England, United Kingdom
- 4 Laboratory of Regenerative Medicine in Sports Science, School of Physical Education & Sports Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou, China
- 5 Cardiovascular and Mitochondrial Related Disease Research Center, Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Hualien 970, Taiwan, ROC
- 6 Center of General Education, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation, Tzu Chi University of Science and Technology, Hualien 970, Taiwan, ROC
- 7 Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan, ROC
- 8 Graduate Institute of Biomedical Sciences, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan, ROC
Received: March 29, 2021 Accepted: May 31, 2021 Published: June 28, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203176
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Background: Stem cell aging, characterized by elevated p16INK4a expression, decreases cell repopulating and self-renewal abilities, which results in elevated inflammation and slow recovery against stress.
Methods: Biopsied muscles were analyzed at baseline and 24 h after squat exercise in 12 trained men (22 ± 2 y). Placebo (PLA) and immunostimulant Rg1 (5 mg) were supplemented 1 h before a squat exercise, using a double-blind counterbalanced crossover design.
Results: Perceived exertion at the end of resistance exercise session was significantly lowered after Rg1 supplementation. Exercise doubled endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) (p < 0.001) and decreased p16INK4a mRNA to 50% of baseline (d = 0.865, p < 0.05) in muscle tissues, despite p16INK4a+ cell and beta-galactosidase+ (ß-Gal+) cell counts being unaltered. Rg1 further lowered p16INK4a mRNA to 35% of baseline with greater effect size than the PLA level (d = 1.302, p < 0.01) and decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) mRNA to 39% of baseline (p < 0.05). A strong correlation between MPO and p16INK4a expression in muscle tissues was observed (r = 0.84, p < 0.001).
Conclusion: EPC in skeletal muscle doubled 1 d after an acute bout of resistance exercise. The exercised effects in lowering EPC aging and tissue inflammation were enhanced by immunostimulant Rg1, suggesting the involvement of immune stimulation on EPC rejuvenation.