The G-quadruplex (G4-DNA or G4) is a secondary DNA structure formed by DNA sequences containing multiple runs of guanines. While it is now firmly established that stabilized G4s lead to enhanced genomic instability in cancer cells, whether and how G4s contribute to genomic instability in brain cells is still not clear. We previously showed that, in cultured primary neurons, small-molecule G4 stabilizers promote formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and downregulate the Brca1 gene. Here, we determined if G4-dependent Brca1 downregulation is unique to neurons or if the effects in neurons also occur in astrocytes and microglia. We show that primary neurons, astrocytes and microglia basally exhibit different G4 landscapes. Stabilizing G4-DNA with the G4 ligand pyridostatin (PDS) differentially modifies chromatin structure in these cell types. Intriguingly, PDS promotes DNA DSBs in neurons, astrocytes and microglial cells, but fails to downregulate Brca1 in astrocytes and microglia, indicating differences in DNA damage and repair pathways between brain cell types. Taken together, our findings suggest that stabilized G4-DNA contribute to genomic instability in the brain and may represent a novel senescence pathway in brain aging.