Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 14 pp 18564—18585
Chocolate consumption and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a US population: a post hoc analysis of the PLCO cancer screening trial
- 1 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
- 2 Department of Cardiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
- 3 Department of Nephrology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
- 4 Department of Geriatrics, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Chengdu, Chengdu, China
- 5 Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health and Management, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
- 6 Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
- 7 Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
- 8 Department of Infectious Diseases, Institute for Viral Hepatitis, The Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Chinese Ministry of Education, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China
Received: February 22, 2021 Accepted: July 6, 2021 Published: July 29, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203302
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Zhong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Few studies with mixed results have examined the association between chocolate consumption and mortality. We aimed to examine this association in a US population. A population-based cohort of 91891 participants aged 55 to 74 years was identified. Chocolate consumption was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate risk estimates. After an average follow-up of 13.5 years, 19586 all-cause deaths were documented. Compared with no regular chocolate consumption, the maximally adjusted hazard ratios of all-cause mortality were 0.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–0.94], 0.84 (95% CI 0.79–0.90), 0.86 (95% CI 0.81–0.93), and 0.87 (95% CI 0.82–0.93) for >0–0.5 servings/week, >0.5–1 serving/week, >1–2 servings/week, and >2 servings/week, respectively (Ptrend = 0.009). A somewhat stronger inverse association was observed for mortality from cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer’s disease. A nonlinear dose–response pattern was found for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (all Pnonlinearity < 0.01), with the lowest risk observed at chocolate consumption of 0.7 servings/week and 0.6 servings/week, respectively. The favorable associations with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were found to be more pronounced in never smokers than in current or former smokers (all Pinteraction < 0.05). In conclusion, chocolate consumption confers reduced risks of mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer’s disease in this US population.