In this study, we investigated the mechanistic role and prognostic significance of IGSF10 in lung adenocarcinoma. Oncomine database analysis showed that IGSF10 expression was significantly reduced in most cancer types, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). In the TCGA-LUAD dataset, IGSF10 expression correlated positively with proportions of tumor-infiltrated B cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that overall survival of patients with low IGSF10 expression was significantly shorter than those with high IGSF10 expression. MiRWalk2.0 database analysis and dual luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR-106b-5p suppressed IGSF10 expression by binding to its 3’UTR. MiR-106b-5p levels inversely correlated with IGSF10 expression in the TCGA-LUAD dataset. Moreover, inhibition of miR-106b-5p significantly decreased in vitro proliferation, migration, and invasion by LUAD cells, whereas miR-106b-5p overexpression reversed those effects. These results demonstrate that IGSF10 is an independent prognostic factor for LUAD. Furthermore, miR-106b-5p suppressed IGSF10 expression in LUAD tissues by binding to its 3’UTR, which makes IGSF10 and miR-106b-5p potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in LUAD patients.