Insomnia is currently considered one of the potential triggers of accelerated aging. The frequency of registered sleep-wake cycle complaints increases with age and correlates with the quality of life of elderly people. Nevertheless, whether insomnia is actually an age-associated process or whether it acts as an independent stress-factor that activates pathological processes, remains controversial. In this study, we analyzed the effects of long-term sleep deprivation modeling on the locomotor and orienting-exploratory activity, spatial learning abilities and working memory of C57BL/6 female mice of different ages. We also evaluated the modeled stress influence on morphological changes in brain tissue, the functional activity of the mitochondrial apparatus of nerve cells, and the level of DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels of the transcription factor HIF-1α (Hif1) and age-associated molecular marker PLIN2. Our findings point to the age-related adaptive capacity of female mice to the long-term sleep deprivation influence. For young (1.5 months) mice, the modeled sleep deprivation acts as a stress factor leading to weight loss against the background of increased food intake, the activation of animals’ locomotor and exploratory activity, their mnestic functions, and molecular and cellular adaptive processes ensuring animal resistance both to stress and risk of accelerated aging development. Sleep deprivation in adult (7-9 months) mice is accompanied by an increase in body weight against the background of active food intake, increased locomotor and exploratory activity, gross disturbances in mnestic functions, and decreased adaptive capacity of brain cells, that potentially increasing the risk of pathological reactions and neurodegenerative processes.