Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 15 pp 19614—19642

Global, regional, and national burden of blindness and vision loss due to common eye diseases along with its attributable risk factors from 1990 to 2019: a systematic analysis from the global burden of disease study 2019

Xiaorong Yang1,2, , Hui Chen1,2, , Tongchao Zhang3, , Xiaolin Yin3, , Jinyu Man3, , Qiufeng He3, , Ming Lu1,2,3, ,

  • 1 Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China
  • 2 Clinical Research Center of Shandong University, Qilu Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China
  • 3 Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China

Received: May 21, 2021       Accepted: July 15, 2021       Published: August 9, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Yang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


To map the magnitudes and temporal trends of blindness and vision loss (BVL) due to common eye diseases along with its attributable risk factors at the national, regional, and global levels. The annual burden of BVL in 204 countries and territories was extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. The estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) and causes composition change were calculated to quantify the temporal trends of BVL-related disease burden by sex, region, and eye disease. The global disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of BVL increased from 12.44 million in 1990 to 22.56 million in 2019, with a slightly decreased rate from 3.03 to 2.78 per 1000 population (EAPC = -0.30). About 29.6% of BVL-related DALYs worldwide were caused by cataract, followed by refraction disorders (29.1%), near vision loss (21.7%), other vision loss (13.7%), glaucoma (3.3%), and age-related macular degeneration (2.5%) in 2019. The age-standardized DALYs rates due to each eye disease type in most regions were decreased, especially in countries with high burden and high-middle socio-demographic index. Moreover, the contribution of smoking and air pollution from solid fuels to BVL burden decreased, however, the age-standardized burden of BVL attributed to high body-mass index and high fasting plasma glucose elevated gradually across almost all regions. The temporal trend of BVL burden due to specific eye diseases varies remarkably by region, sex and age. Understanding the real-time patterns of BVL burden is crucial for formulating more effective and targeted prevention and healthcare strategies to decrease the BVL burden.


ASPR: age-standardized prevalence rate; BVL: blindness and vision loss; CI: confidence interval; DALYs: disability-adjusted life years; EAPC: estimated annual percentage change; GBD: global burden of disease; SDI: socio-demographic index; UI: uncertainty interval.