MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to osteoarthritis (OA) development. Nevertheless, the function and mechanism of miR-30b-5p in OA are unclear. In the present article, we gauged the miR-30b-5p level in OA patients and analyzed its correlation with OA stages. Then, we conducted in-vivo and in-vitro gain-of-function assays to determine the function of miR-30b-5p, silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) and Fox. Cell counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, BrdU assay and flow cytometry were utilized to gauge cell viability and apoptosis of human chondrocyte (HC-A). The targeting association between miR-30b-5p and SIRT1 was validated through the dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) experiment. The results signified that miR-30b-5p was up-regulated in OA patients, OA rats and interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced chondrocytes. The higher miR-30b-5p expression brought about progressive stages of OA patients and enhanced levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in the synovial fluid. Functionally, overexpressing miR-30b-5p hampered cell viability, aggravated chondrocyte apoptosis and NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by IL-1β, while down-regulating miR-30b-5p exerted the reverse effects. The in-vivo experiment exhibited that down-regulating miR-30b-5p improved joint pain and loss of articular cartilage in the rats with restrained inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Mechanistically, miR-30b-5p targeted the 3’-non-translated region (3’UTR) of SIRT1, and miR-30b-5p was inducible with NF-κB phosphorylation enhancement. Overexpressing SIRT1 or inhibiting NF-κB relieved miR-30b-5p-induced apoptosis and NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting FoxO3a, while down-regulating SIRT1 or FoxO3a reversed miR-30b-5p-in-induced anti-inflammatory and apoptosis-suppressive effects. Collectively, NF-κB-induced miR-30b-5p modulates chondrocyte apoptosis and OA progression by regulating the SIRT1-FoxO3a-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome.