Alzheimer’s disease (AD), as the most common neurodegenerative disease in elder population, is pathologically characterized by β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles composed of highly-phosphorylated tau protein and consequently progressive neurodegeneration. However, both Aβ and tau fails to cover the whole pathological process of AD, and most of the Aβ- or tau-based therapeutic strategies are all failed. Increasing lines of evidence from both clinical and preclinical studies have indicated that age-related cerebrovascular dysfunctions, including the changes in cerebrovascular microstructure, blood-brain barrier integrity, cerebrovascular reactivity and cerebral blood flow, accompany or even precede the development of AD-like pathologies. These findings may raise the possibility that cerebrovascular changes are likely pathogenic contributors to the onset and progression of AD. In this review, we provide an appraisal of the cerebrovascular alterations in AD and the relationship to cognitive impairment and AD pathologies. Moreover, the adrenergic mechanisms leading to cerebrovascular and AD pathologies were further discussed. The contributions of early cerebrovascular factors, especially through adrenergic mechanisms, should be considered and treasured in the diagnostic, preventative, and therapeutic approaches to address AD.