To summarize and assess the credibility and strength of non-genetic factors and genetic variation on gastric cancer risk, we performed a field synopsis and meta-analysis to identify the risk of gastric cancer in Chinese population. Cumulative evidence was graded according to the Venice criteria, and attributable risk percentage (ARP) and population attributable risk percentage (PARP) were used to evaluate the epidemiological effect. A total of 956 studies included non-genetic (404 studies) and genetic factors (552 studies) were quantified, and data on 1161 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were available. We identified 14 non-genetic factors were significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. For the analysis of time trends, H. pylori infection rate in gastric cancer and population showed a downward trend. Meanwhile 22 variants were identified significantly associated with gastric cancer: 3 (PLCE1 rs2274223, PSCA rs2976392, MUC1 rs4072037) were high and 19 SNPs were intermediate level of summary evidence, respectively. For non-genetic factors, the top three for ARP were 54.75% (pickled food), 65.87% (stomach disease), and 49.75% (smoked and frying). For PARP were 34.22% (pickled food), 34.24% (edible hot food) and 23.66%(H. pylori infection). On the basis of ARP and PARP associated with SNPs of gastric cancer, the top three for ARP were 53.91% (NAT2, rs1799929),53.05% (NAT2 phenotype), and 42.85% (IL-10, rs1800896). For PARP (Chinese Han in Beijing) were 36.96% (VDR, rs731236), 25.58% (TGFBR2, rs3773651) and 20.56% (MUC1, rs4072037). Our study identified non-genetic risk factors and high-quality biomarkers of gastric cancer susceptibility and their contribution to gastric cancer.