In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which astrocyte-derived exosomes (AS-Exos) alleviate traumatic brain injury (TBI)-induced neuronal defects in TBI model rats and mice. Treatment with AS-Exos alleviated neurobehavioral deficits, cognitive impairment, and brain edema in TBI rats. AS-Exos also significantly reduced neuronal cell loss and atrophy in the TBI rats. AS-Exos significantly reduced oxidative stress and mitochondrial H2O2 levels by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the hippocampal neurons of TBI rats. TUNEL-staining assays showed that AS-Exos significantly reduced TBI-induced neuronal apoptosis. Mechanistically, AS-Exos ameliorated oxidative stress by activating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling in the hippocampus of TBI rats. In addition, the neuroprotective effects of AS-Exos were abrogated in brain-specific Nrf2-knockout mice subjected to TBI. These findings demonstrate that AS-Exos protects against TBI-induced oxidative stress and neuronal apoptosis by activating Nrf2 signaling in both rat and mouse models.