Due to advances in chip and sequencing technology, several types and numbers of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified. LncRNAs are defined as non-protein-coding RNA molecules longer than 200 nucleotides, and are now thought as a new frontier in the study of human malignant diseases including NSCLC. Diagnosis of numerous malignant tumors has been closely linked to the differential expression of certain lncRNAs. LncRNAs are involved in gene expression regulation at multiple levels of epigenetics, transcriptional regulation, and post-transcriptional regulation. Mutations, deletions, or abnormal expression levels lead to physiological abnormalities, disease occurrence and are closely associated with human tumor diseases. LncRNAs play a crucial role in cancerous processes as either oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes. The expression of lncRNAs can regulate tumor cell in the proliferation, migration, apoptosis, cycle, invasion, and metastasis. As such, lncRNAs are potential diagnostic and treatment targets for cancer. And that, tumor biomarkers need to be detectable in easily accessible body samples, should be characterized by high specificity and sufficient sensitivity. Herein, it is significant clinical importance to screen and supplement new biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer. This study aimed at systematically describing lncRNAs from five aspects based on recent studies: concepts, classification, structure, molecular mechanism, signal pathway, as well as review lncRNA implications in malignant tumor.