COVID-19 Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 21903—21913
Comparison of the clinical characteristics and mortalities of severe COVID-19 patients between pre- and post-menopause women and age-matched men
- 1 Department of Anesthesiology, Affiliated Hospital of Guangdong Medical University, Zhanjiang, Guangdong, China
- 2 State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
- 3 The Department of Pain, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, Hubei, China
- 4 Department of Obstetrics, Affiliated Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital, Southern Medical University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
- 5 The Department of Urology, Xiangyang Central Hospital, Affiliated Hospital of Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang, Hubei, China
- 6 Department of Anesthesiology, The First People’s of Hospital of Jingmen City, Jingmen, Hubei, China
- 7 Guangdong Medical University Affiliated Lianjiang People’s Hospital, Lianjiang, Guangdong, China
- 8 Department of Anesthesiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
- 9 Department of Anesthesiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, China
- 10 Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
Received: May 7, 2021 Accepted: September 3, 2021 Published: September 22, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203532
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
The mortality rate of young female COVID-19 patients is reported to be lower than that of young males but no significant difference in mortality was found between female and male COVID-19 patients aged over 65 years, and the underlying mechanism is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed clinical characteristics and outcomes of severely ill pre- and post-menopausal COVID-19 patients and compared with age-matched males. Of the 459 patients included, 141 aged ≤55, among whom 19 died (16 males vs. 3 females, p<0.005). While for patients >55 years (n=318), 115 died (47 females vs. 68 males, p=0.149). In patients ≤55 years old, the levels of NLR, median LDH, median c-reactive protein and procalcitonin were significantly higher while the median lymphocyte count and LCR were lower in male than in female (all p<0.0001). In patients over 55, these biochemical parameters were far away from related normal/reference values in the vast majority of these patients in both genders which were in contrast to that seen in the young group. It is concluded that the mortality of severely ill pre-menopausal but not post-menopausal COVID-19 female patients is lower than age-matched male. Our findings support the notion that estrogen plays a beneficial role in combating COVID-19.