Dulaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, is widely used to treat diabetes. However, its effects on muscle wasting due to aging are poorly understood. In the current study, we investigated the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanism of dulaglutide in muscle wasting in aged mice. Dulaglutide improved muscle mass and strength in aged mice. Histological analysis revealed that the cross-sectional area of the tibialis anterior (TA) in the dulaglutide-treated group was thicker than that in the vehicle group. Moreover, dulaglutide increased the shift toward middle and large-sized fibers in both young and aged mice compared to the vehicle. Dulaglutide increased myofiber type I and type IIa in young (18.5% and 8.2%) and aged (1.8% and 19.7%) mice, respectively, compared to the vehicle group. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, decreased but increased by dulaglutide in aged mice. The expression of atrophic factors such as myostatin, atrogin-1, and muscle RING-finger protein-1 was decreased in aged mice, whereas that of the myogenic factor, MyoD, was increased in both young and aged mice following dulaglutide treatment. In aged mice, optic atrophy-1 (OPA-1) protein was decreased, whereas Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR-9) and its targeting inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL-6] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) were elevated in the TA and quadriceps (QD) muscles. In contrast, dulaglutide administration reversed this expression pattern, thereby significantly attenuating the expression of inflammatory cytokines in aged mice. These data suggest that dulaglutide may exert beneficial effects in the treatment of muscle wasting due to aging.