Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22059—22077

Sex, rurality and socioeconomical status in Spanish centennial population (2017)

Pedro Fuentes1, , Sandra Amador1, , Ana Maria Lucas-Ochoa1, , Lorena Cuenca-Bermejo1, , Emiliano Fernández-Villalba1, , Valeria Raparelli2, , Colleen Norris3,4, , Alexandra Kautzky-Willer5, , Karolina Kublickiene6, , Louise Pilote7, , María Trinidad Herrero1, , the GOING-FWD Consortium ,

  • 1 Clinical and Experimental Neuroscience (NiCE), Institute for Aging Research, Biomedical Institute for Bio-Health Research of Murcia (IMIB-Arrixaca), School of Medicine, University of Murcia, Campus Mare Nostrum, Murcia, Spain
  • 2 Department of Translational Medicine, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
  • 3 Faculty of Nursing, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 4 Cardiovascular and Stroke Strategic Clinical Network, Alberta Health Services, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada
  • 5 Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
  • 6 Department of Renal Medicine, Institution for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 7 Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, Division of Clinical Epidemiology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Received: March 5, 2021       Accepted: August 2, 2021       Published: September 26, 2021
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2021 Fuentes et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


World's population is exponentially aging as people reaching 100 years old has increased. The number of areas with the highest centennial population rates (Blue Zones), are significantly higher. Are there any determinant factors that favor this situation in Spain? The goal of this study was to determine the possible influence of sex, rurality and socioeconomic factors (Gross Domestic Product (GDP)) on the prevalence of the centennial population of the Spanish society. The Spanish register of inhabitants was published in 2017 by the National Statistics Institute.

The analysis was carried out both by Autonomous Communities and by provinces in phases: a first descriptive analysis, followed by an inferential analysis, based on statistical tests (independent T- Student test, Pearson correlation and ANOVA). There were significant interactions between: i) sex and longevity (in favor of the female population); ii) female and rural housing and iii) female, GDP and urban areas.

Feminization was proven in the longevity revolution, but, in general, GDP per Capita was not a significant survival factor on its own. This study was the first step of further analysis related to extreme longevity in Spain, which will include other dependent variables such as state of health and well-being as well as social factors.


ADL: activities of daily Living; GDP: gross domestic product; IADL: instrumental activities of daily living; INE: national institute of statistics; WHO: world health organization.