Research Paper Volume 13, Issue 18 pp 22528—22543
Inhibition of FSTL3 abates the proliferation and metastasis of renal cell carcinoma via the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway
- 1 Department of Urology, Zaozhuang Municipal Hospital, Zaozhuang 277100, Shandong, China
Received: May 21, 2021 Accepted: August 31, 2021 Published: September 23, 2021https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203564
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2021 Sun et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a lethal malignancy of the genitourinary system. Follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3), which mediates cell differentiation and growth, acts as a biomarker of tumors and participates in cancer development and progression. Presently, the FSTL3’s functions in RCC were investigated. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), Western Blot, and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted to verify FSTL3 expression in RCC tissues and cell lines. BrdU assay and CCK8 experiment were made to monitor cell proliferation. Transwell was implemented to examine the invasion of the cells. Flow cytometry analyzed cell apoptosis, and Western Blot evaluated the protein levels of E-cadherin, Twist, and Slug. In the meantime, the protein profiles of the GSK-3β, β-catenin, and TGF-β signaling pathways were ascertained. Moreover, the Xenograft tumor model was constructed in nude mice for measuring tumor growth in vivo. The statistics showed that FSTL3 presented an overexpression in RCC, and patients with a lower expression of FSTL3 manifested a better prognosis. Down-regulated FSTL3 hampered the proliferation, invasion, EMT, and tumor growth of RCC cells and caused cell apoptosis. On the contrary, FSTL3 overexpression enhanced the malignant behaviors of RCC cells. Furthermore, FSTL3 knockdown bolstered GSK-3β, suppressed β-catenin, and reduced BMP1-SMAD pathway activation. Inhibited β-catenin substantially mitigated FSTL3-mediated promoting functions in RCC. In short, FSTL3 functions as an oncogene in RCC by modulating the GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.