Sepsis is a common critical illness in ICU and always a great difficulty in clinical treatment. GPR43 (G protein-coupled receptor 43) participates in regulating appetite and gastrointestinal peptide secretion to modulate fat decomposition and formation. However, the biological contribution of GPR43 on inflammation of sepsis has not been previously investigated. We investigated the mechanisms of GPR43 gene, which plays a possible role in distinguishing sepsis and contributes to the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced inflammatory reaction. Furthermore, we performed studies with mice induced to sepsis by Cecal Ligation and Puncture (CLP), Knockout GPR43 (GPR43-/-) mice, and Wild Type (WT) mice induced with CLP. In addition, lung tissues and cell samples were analyzed by histology, Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (Q-PCR), Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent (ELISA) Assay, and western blot. GPR43 agonist could significantly reduce inflammation reactions and trigger lung injury in mice with sepsis. As for GPR43-/- mice, the risks of sepsis-induced inflammatory reactions and corresponding lung injury were promoted. On the one hand, the up-regulation of GPR43 gene reduced ROS mitochondrial damage to inhibit inflammatory reactions via the inactivation of NLRP3 Inflammasome by PPARγ/ Nox1/EBP50/ p47phox signal channel. On the other hand, the down-regulation of GPR43 promoted inflammatory reactions in vitro model through the acceleration of ROS-dependently mitochondrial damage by PPARγ/ Nox1/EBP50/ p47phox/ NLRP3 signal channel. These findings indicate that the inhibition of GPR43 as a possible important factor of sepsis may shed lights on the mechanism of sepsis-induced inflammation reaction.