Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is the most common and aggressive tumor worldwide, and the long-term survival of these patients remains poor. Three databases (GSE17351, GSE20347, and GSE100942) were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus, and 193 differentially expressed genes including 56 upregulated and 137 downregulated genes were identified by paired test using limma R package. Then, functional enrichments by gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses showed these genes were mainly related protein digestion and absorption, and IL-17 signaling pathway. We then constructed a protein-protein interaction network and cytoHubba module to determine the six hub genes and overall survival analysis of the six hub genes were evaluated by UALCAN and GEPIA2 analysis. Ultimately, the experimental results confirmed the KIF4A was overexpressed in the ESCC tissues and cell lines compared with the normal esophageal mucosal tissues and was linked to poor prognosis. Moreover, we also revealed that KIF4A facilitates proliferation, cell cycle, migration, and invasion of ESCC in vivo and in vitro. Overall, these findings demonstrated that KIF4A could serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and may help facilitate therapeutic targets in ESCC patients.