Circadian dysregulation involves malignant tumor initiation and progression, but the understanding of circadian rhythm’s roles in bladder cancer (BCa) remains insufficient. The circadian rhythm-related genes were collected and clustered based on the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and the clustering was significantly associated with the prognosis and risk clinicopathological features. Through genomic difference analysis and gene pairing, a circadian rhythm-related signature was successfully established. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and time-dependent receiver operating curves displayed that the prognosis model was a reliable prognosis biomarker both in the training cohort (n = 396, P = 2.687e-10) and external validation cohort (n = 224, P = 1.45e-02). The patients with high risk have high immune infiltration and high expression of immune checkpoint genes, which partly account for the poor prognosis. TIDE algorithm and the validation in IMvigor210 cohort indicated that the risk signature was a promising marker for the immunotherapeutic response. The risk model could also predict the therapeutic response of cisplatin, which was validated in the Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer database (P = 0.0049), TCGA (P = 0.038), and T24 BCa cells treated with cisplatin. The functional enrichment showed the risk model was significantly correlated with some malignant phenotypes, such as angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and KRAS signaling pathway. Totally, we proposed a novel circadian rhythm-related signature for prognosis evaluation, which also helped to predict the immune infiltration and cisplatin sensitivity in BCa.