There are three most important mismatch repair genes in the mismatch repair system, MSH6 is one of them and it plays an essential role in DNA mismatch repair. Several emerging cell- or animal-based studies have verified that MSH6 mutations are closely linked to the occurrence, progression or metastasis of cancer, but there is still no practicable pan-cancer analysis. On account of the available datasets of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and Gene expression omnibus (GEO), a comprehensive analysis of the potential carcinogenic effects of the MSH6 gene was conducted in 33 human cancers. MSH6 was highly expressed in most cancers, and the high expression of MSH6 was associated with poor overall survival prognosis of patients with multiple cancers, such as adrenocortical carcinoma. MSH6 mutations occurred in most cancers and were closely related to the prognosis of cancer patients. Increased phosphorylation levels of S227 and S830 were noted in several tumors, including breast cancer and colon cancer. MSH6 expression was also observed to be correlated with cancer-associated fibroblasts and CD8+ T-cells infiltration levels in various cancer types, e. g. pancreatic adenocarcinoma or testicular germ cell tumors. Furthermore, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that the main biological activities of MSH6 were related to ATPase activity, mismatch repair, and DNA metabolism-related functions. Altogether, our pan-cancer research has suggested that the MSH6 expression level was closely related to the carcinogenesis and prognosis of certain tumors, which helps to know the effect of MSH6 in tumorigenesis from the point of view of clinical tumor samples.