Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 4 pp 1879—1890
Galectin-9 expression predicts poor prognosis in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma
- 1 Department of Urology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, China
- 2 Department of Urology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, China
- 3 Department of Health Services, Health Service Training Base, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, China
- 4 State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital and School of Basic Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, China
- 5 State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an 710032, China
- 6 Department of Epidemiology, School of Military Preventive Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an 710032, China
- 7 Institute of Medical Research, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072, China
Received: May 12, 2021 Accepted: February 14, 2022 Published: February 24, 2022https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.203909
How to Cite
Copyright: © 2022 Jiao et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the expression of Galectin-9 in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), evaluate its clinicopathological significance, and investigate whether Galecin-9 expression has prognostic value in HBV-associated HCC.
Methods: Immunohistochemistry staining was performed to examine the expression of Galectin-9 in paraffin-embedded tissues from 140 cases of HBV-associated HCC specimens. The association between Gal-9 expression, clinicopathological features and prognosis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test and Cox regression analysis. Dual immunofluorescence (IF) staining was performed to identify the cell types that have positive Gal-9 expression.
Results: Among the 140 cases of HBV-associated HCC, 39 (27.9%) cases showed high Gal-9 expression (score≥6), 21 (15%) cases showed moderate Gal-9 expression (6>score≥3), 33 (23.6%) cases showed weak Gal-9 expression (3>score>0), and 47 (33.6%) cases had no detectable Gal-9 expression (score=0). Positive Gal-9 expression (score>0) was associated with lymph node metastasis (P=0.029), Ki-67 proliferation index (P=0.009) and poor prognosis. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that Gal-9 expression could be used as an independent prognostic marker for HBV-associated HCC. Dual IF staining indicated that Gal-9 was mainly expressed in CD68+CD163+ Kupffer cells (KCs) in HBV-associated HCC.
Conclusions: Gal-9 was specifically expressed in certain HBV-associated HCC. Positive Gal-9 expression was significantly associated with poor prognosis, and Gal-9 could be used as a prognostic marker in HBV-associated HCC. Specific expression of Gal-9 on KCs indicated it may have immunosuppressive function in HBV-associated HCC.