Research Paper Volume 14, Issue 8 pp 3337—3364

Muscle fiber type-dependence effect of exercise on genomic networks in aged mice models

Sun Min Lee1, , Min Chul Lee4, , Woo Ri Bae1, , Kyung Jin Yoon1, , Hyo Youl Moon1,2,3, ,

  • 1 Department of Physical Education, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2 Institute of Sport Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 3 Institute on Aging, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea
  • 4 Department of Sports Medicine, College of Health Science, CHA University, Pocheon, South Korea

Received: January 27, 2022       Accepted: April 12, 2022       Published: April 19, 2022
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2022 Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Skeletal muscles are made up of various muscle fiber type including slow and fast-twitch fibers. Because each muscle fiber has its own physiological characteristics, the effects of aging and exercise vary depending on the type of muscle fiber. We used bioinformatics screening techniques such as differentially expressed gene analysis, gene ontology analysis and gene set enrichment analysis, to try to understand the genetic differences between muscle fiber types. The experiment and gene expression profiling in this study used the soleus (SOL, slow-twitch muscle) and gastrocnemius (GAS, fast-twitch muscle). According to our findings, fatty acid metabolism is significantly up-regulated in SOL compared to GAS, whereas the glucose metabolism pathway is significantly down-regulated in SOL compared to GAS.

Furthermore, apoptosis and myogenesis patterns differ between SOL and GAS. SOL did not show differences in apoptosis due to the aging effect, but apoptosis in GAS was significantly up-regulated with age. Apoptosis in GAS of old groups is significantly reduced after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, but no such finding was found in SOL. In terms of myogenesis, exercise intervention up-regulated this process in GAS of old groups but not in SOL. Taken together, muscle fiber type significantly interacts with aging and exercise. Despite the importance of the interaction between these factors, large-scale gene expression data has rarely been studied. We hope to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between muscle fiber type, aging and exercise at the molecular level.


DEG: differentially expression gene; GO: Gene Ontology; GSEA: gene set enrichment analysis; SOL: soleus; GAS: gastrocnemius; Atf3: activating transcription factor3; BDNF: brain-derived neurotrophic factor; SQSTM1: sequestosome1; YC: young-control; YE: young-exercise; OC: old-control; OE: old-exercise; PCA: principal component analysis; DAVID: Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia Of Genes And Genomes; Cd74: cluster of differentiation 74; Tyrobp: TYRO protein tyrosine kinase-binding protein; Nr1d1: nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1; Pi3kr1: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1; Pnpla3: patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3; Hbb-b1: hemoglobin subunit beta-1; Chtop: chromatin target of PRMT1; ES: enrichment score; EDL: extensor digitorum longus; Cidea: cell-death inducing DNA fragmentation factor alpha-like effector A; Dbp: D-box-binding PAR BZIP transcription factor; BCAA: branched-chain amino acid.