Objective: To explore the function of coagulation factor XII (F12) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).

Materials and Methods: We assessed F12 expression and its relationship with overall survival (OS) in various cancers using TIMER and TISIDB databases. Further, we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression levels of F12 in PTC via different bioinformatics tools. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was applied to determine the diagnostic value of F12 in PTC. Then, the Kaplan-Meier plotter and Cox regression analyses were performed to examine the prognostic significance of F12. The possible mechanism of F12 in PTC was investigated through enrichment analyses. Finally, the correlation between F12 expression and immune cell infiltration was analyzed using TCGA data.

Results: This study revealed the clinical significance of F12 in various cancers. Higher mRNA (P <0.001) and protein expressions of F12 were observed in PTC compared with normal tissues. Besides, F12 expression exhibited high diagnostic performance in PTC and its overexpression served as an independent predictor for the poor OS (P <0.05). Enrichment analyses results showed that F12 was mainly involved in metabolism-associated pathways. Additionally, F12 expression was significantly linked to immune cell infiltration levels, especially macrophage infiltration.

Conclusions: F12 might be a reliable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PTC. Moreover, F12 expression might affect the OS of PTC patients via regulating metabolic pathways.