Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies with a high mortality rate worldwide. POSTN has been shown to be strongly correlated with the poor prognosis of lung cancer patients. However, the function and mechanism of action of POSTN in lung cancer remain unclear. Here, we carried out a pan-cancer analysis to assess the clinical prognostic value of POSTN based on the TCGA, TIMER, Oncomine, Kaplan-Meier, and UALCAN databases. We found that upregulated POSTN can be a promising biomarker to predict the prognosis of patients with lung cancer. High levels of POSTN correlated with immune cell infiltration in lung cancer, especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), which was further confirmed based on the results from the TISIDB database. Moreover, the expression analysis, correlation analysis, and survival analysis revealed that POSTN-targeted miRNAs, downregulation of has-miR-144-3p and has-miR-30e-3p, were significantly linked to poor prognosis in patients with LUSC. Taken together, we identified that POSTN can act as a novel biomarker for determining the prognosis related to immune infiltration in patients with LUSC and deserves further research.