Golgi stress has been observed in various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Whether Golgi stress participates in hyperglycemia-induced neuroinflammation, and how it is regulated remain unclear. First, we found that high glucose (HG) could induce dispersed Golgi apparatus (GA) in BV2 cells, which can be reversed by knockout of NLRP3. Next, we discovered that HG could promote the interaction of NLRP3 and VPS35 and then enhances the interaction of VPS35 and Golph3; knockout of NLRP3 suppressed the expression of VPS35 and Golph3; knockout of VPS35 reduced the expression of Golph3 but not NLRP3, indicating that HG induced the activation of NLRP3/VPS35/Golph3 pathway in BV2 cells. Further, we elucidated the signaling pathway that Golph3 mediated GA stress in HG condition. We used GST-pulldown and Co-IP experiments methods to show that HG promoted the interaction of Golph3 and Vimentin, knockout of Golph3 alleviated the expression of Vimentin. Knockout out of Golph3 and Vimentin both ameliorated HG induced dispersed Golgi apparatus. Collectively, our study demonstrated that HG regulates GA stress through NLRP3/VPS35/Golph3/Vimentin pathway. At last, we found that a combination of small molecular inhibitors targeting NLRP3 and Golph3 selected by molecular docking could alleviate HG-induced neuroinflammation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the molecular inhibitors targeting NLRP3 and Golph3 have great potential for use in the development of anti-diabetes neuroinflammatory therapies.