Exploration and utilization of exosome biomarkers and their related functions provide the possibility for the diagnosis and treatment of post-stroke cognitive impairment (PSCI). To identify the new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of plasma exosome were uzed label-free quantitative proteomics and biological information analysis in PSCI patients. Behavioral assessments were performed, including the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Barthel index, the Morse Fall Seale (MFS) between control group (n = 10) and PSCI group (n = 10). The blood samples were collected to analyse the biomarker and differentially expressed proteins of plasma exosome using label-free quantitative proteomics and biological information. The exosomes marker proteins were determined by Western blot. The exosome morphology was observed by transmission electron microscopy. The scores of MMSE and MoCA were significantly decreased in the PSCI group. The PT% and high-density lipoprotein decreased and the INR ratio increased in PSCI group. The mean size of exosome was approximately 71.6 nm and the concentration was approximately 6.8E+7 particles/mL. Exosome proteomics identified 259 differentially expressed proteins. The mechanisms of cognitive impairment are related to regulate the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, calcium dependent protein binding, cell adhesive protein binding, formation of fibrin clot, lipid metabolism and ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in plasma exosome of PSCI patients. Plasma levels of YWHAZ and BAIAP2 were significantly increased while that of IGHD, ABCB6 and HSPD1 were significantly decreased in PSCI patients. These proteins might be target-related proteins and provide global insights into pathogenesis mechanisms of PSCI at plasma exosome proteins level.