Research Paper Volume 15, Issue 17 pp 8948—8975

Prognostic value and immunological role of CSNK1D in human cancers

Jianguo Wang1, , Baohong Hu1, , Weixing Wang1, ,

  • 1 Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430060, PR China

Received: May 21, 2023       Accepted: July 24, 2023       Published: September 8, 2023
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2023 Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


CSNK1D, also known as CK1δ, is a crucial gene involved in various biological processes such as cell cycle, transcriptional regulation, apoptosis, cell polarity, and cell motility. It is associated with different cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the role of CSNK1D in multiple human cancers, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), through in vitro experiments. The research utilized various online resources and databases like UCSC, NCBI, GEPIA2, HPA, cBioPortal, SangerBox, UALCAN, and TCGA for analyzing CSNK1D expression, prognosis significance, immune features, and gene alterations in cancers. RT-PCR was employed to evaluate CSNK1D expression in normal liver and liver cancer cell lines. In vitro experiments, including CCK-8, Edu, wound healing, and Transwell assays, were conducted to assess CSNK1D’s biological function in HCC cells. Results demonstrated consistent upregulation of CSNK1D in various tumors. Heightened CSNK1D expression correlated with reduced overall survival and disease-free survival rates in different cancer patient cohorts. Significant associations were found between CSNK1D expression levels and immune cell infiltrations, immune checkpoint inhibitors, tumor mutation burden, and microsatellite instability across multiple malignancies. Notably, statistical analyses using TCGA and ICGC data identified CSNK1D as a robust and independent prognostic biomarker in HCC. Inhibiting CSNK1D expression effectively hindered cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in cellular experiments. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSNK1D may serve as a biomarker for tumor prognosis and immunotherapy. It influences the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells.


CSNK1D: casein kinase 1 delta; CCK-8: Cell Counting Kit-8; Edu: 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine; HCC: hepatocellular carcinoma; ROC: Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve; TME: Tumor micro-environment; TNFRSF25: tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 25; CD276: CD276 molecule; BCL3: BCL3 Transcription Coactivator; SLC3A2: solute carrier family 3 (amino acid transporter heavy chain), member 2; LAMB1: laminin, beta 1; HTRA12: Histone H3 (HTR12); CHMP4B: charged multivesicular body protein 4B; CHMP6: charged multivesicular body protein 6; CHMP7: charged multivesicular body protein 7; CASP3: caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase; MSI: Microsatellite instability; TMB: tumor mutation burden; TP53: tumor protein p53; CTNNB1: catenin (cadherin-associated protein), beta 1; TTN: titin; PER2: period circadian clock 2; PER3: period circadian clock 3; PER1: period circadian clock 1; RIOK2: RIO kinase 2; TSR1: TSR1, 20S rRNA accumulation, homolog (S. cerevisiae); SNCA: synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor); USP16: ubiquitin specific peptidase 16; NOB1: NIN1/RPN12 binding protein 1 homolog (S. cerevisiae); TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas; GTEx: Genotype-Tissue Expression; TIMER2: Tumor Immune Estimation Resource; GEPIA: Gene Expression Profling Interactive Analysis; UALCAN: The University of Alabama at Birmingham Cancer data analysis Portal.