Observational studies suggest that cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the causal relationship between the two is not clear. This study applied a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization method to explore the causal relationship between CVD and AD. Genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 46 datasets of European populations (21,982 cases of AD and 41,944 controls) were utilized to obtain genetic instrumental variables for AD. In addition, genetic instrumental variables for atrial fibrillation (AF), heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), coronary heart disease (CHD), angina pectoris (AP), and ischemic stroke (IS) (including large-artery atherosclerotic stroke [LAS] and cardioembolic stroke [CES]) were selected from GWAS data of European populations (P < 5E-8). The inverse variance weighting method was employed as the major Mendelian randomization analysis method. Genetically predicted AD odds ratios (OR) (1.06) (95% CI: 1.02–1.10, P = 0.003) were linked to higher AP analysis. A higher genetically predicted OR for CES (0.9) (95% CI 0.82–0.99, P = 0.02) was linked to a decreased AD risk. This Mendelian randomized study identified AD as a risk factor for AP. In addition, CES was related to a reduced incidence of AD. Therefore, these modifiable risk factors are crucial targets for preventing and treating AD.