Euphorbia factor L1 (EFL1), a lathyrane-type diterpenoid from the medicinal herb Euphorbia lathyris L., has been documented to possess various pharmacologic actives. However, the function of EFL1 on breast cancer is not clear. In this study, we explored the effect and mechanism of EFL1 on breast cancer liver metastasis. Female BALB/c mice were subjected to breast cancer-surgical hepatic implantation (SHI) to establish breast cancer liver metastasis model in vivo. At 10 days post-surgery, mice were administrated with EFL1 once daily for a total of 2 weeks. Serum AST and ALT activities, abdominal circumference, peritoneal fluid, tumor weight and volume were determined to assess liver and mesenteric re-metastasis of breast cancer. H&E staining was used to observe morphology changes in tumor, liver and small intestine tissues. ELISA was applied to observe inflammatory levels. Tumor DDR1 expression and immune infiltration were determined using western blotting, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometer methods. Our results showed that EFL1 administration improved liver function (AST and ALT activities), ascites, liver metastasis and mesenteric re-metastasis in SHI mice. Also, SHI-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α generation in ascites were decreased by EFL1 treatment. Mechanism study revealed that EFL1 intervention enhanced the ratios of CD4+ and CD8+ and CD49b+(NK) T lymphocytes and decreased Treg cells through downregulating DDR1 in the tumor of SHI mice. Furthermore, overexpression of DDR1 abolished the anti-liver metastasis effect and pro-immune infiltration action of EFL1 in SHI mice. Together, our findings suggested that EFL1 protects against breast cancer liver metastasis in vivo by targeting DDR1-mediated immune infiltration.