Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe pathophysiological syndrome resulting in heart failure, which is found to be induced by pulmonary vascular remodeling mediated by oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation. Phoenixin-20 (PNX-20) is a reproductive peptide first discovered in mice with potential suppressive properties against OS and inflammatory response. Our study will explore the possible therapeutic functions of PHN-20 against PAH for future clinical application. Rats were treated with normal saline, PHN-20 (100 ng/g body weight daily), hypoxia, hypoxia+PHN-20 (100 ng/g body weight daily), respectively. A signally elevated RVSP, mPAP, RV/LV + S, and W%, increased secretion of cytokines, enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) level, repressed superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and activated NLRP3 signaling were observed in hypoxia-stimulated rats, which were notably reversed by PHN-20 administration. Pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMECs) were treated with hypoxia with or without PHN-20 (10 and 20 nM). Marked elevation of inflammatory cytokine secretion, increased MDA level, repressed SOD activity, and activated NLRP3 signaling were observed in hypoxia-stimulated PMECs, accompanied by a downregulation of SIRT1. Furthermore, the repressive effect of PHN-20 on the domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) pathway in hypoxia-stimulated PMECs was abrogated by sirtuin1 (SIRT1) knockdown. Collectively, PHN-20 alleviated PAH via inhibiting OS and inflammation by mediating the transcriptional function of SIRT1.