Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most common high-risk diseases associated with a high mortality rate and is still a challenge to treat effectively. Netrin-1 (NT-1) is a novel peptide with a wide range of biological functions, however, its effects on ALI have not been reported before. In this study, an ALI model was constructed using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with NT-1. Pulmonary function and lung wet to dry weight ratio (W/D) were detected. The expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) were measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that the levels of NT-1 were reduced in the LPS-induced ALI mice model. Administration of NT-1 improved histopathological changes of lung tissues and lung function in LPS-challenged ALI mice. We also report that NT-1 decreased Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and ameliorated pulmonary edema. Additionally, treatment with NT-1 reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines such as IL-8, IL-1β, and CXCL2 in lung tissues of LPS-challenged ALI mice. Importantly, NT-1 reduced cell count in BALF and mitigated oxidative stress (OS) by reducing the levels of MDA and increasing the levels of GSH. Mechanistically, it is shown that NT-1 reduced the levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and prevented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65. Our findings indicate that NT-1 is a promising agent for the treatment of ALI through inhibiting TLR4/NF-κB signaling.