Background: Osteosarcoma is a prevalent malignant tumor that originates from mesenchymal tissue. It typically affects children and adolescents. Although it is known that the growth of osteosarcoma relies on oxidative phosphorylation for energy production, limited attention has been paid to exploring the potential of oxidative phosphorylation-related genes in predicting the prognosis of individuals suffering from osteosarcoma.

Methods: All the data were retrieved from the UCSC Xena and GEO (GENE EXPRESSION OMNIBUS). Identification of the oxidative phosphorylation genes linked to the prognosis of individuals with osteosarcoma was done by means of univariate COX and LASSO regression analyses. Following that, patients were categorized into a high-risk group and a low-risk group as per the risk score determined by the identified oxidative phosphorylation genes. Furthermore, a comparison was made in terms of the survival and immune infiltration between both groups, and the prognostic model was established.

Results: Five oxidative phosphorylation genes (ATP6V0D1, LHPP, COX6A2, MTHFD2, NDUFB9) associated with the prognosis of individuals with osteosarcoma were identified and the risk prognostic models were constructed. In the current research, the analysis of the ROC curves indicated a superior predictive accuracy exhibited by the risk model. The prognosis was adversely affected by immune infiltration in the high-risk group in comparison with the low-risk group. The function of the oxidative phosphorylation-related prognostic gene set was verified by GO and KEGG analysis. Furthermore, the link between oxidative phosphorylation-related genes and osteosarcoma immune infiltration was examined by GSEA analysis.

Conclusions: In this study, a prognostic model that demonstrated good predictive performance was constructed. Additionally, this study highlighted a correlation between oxidative phosphorylation-related genes and immune infiltration.