Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common malignancy in elderly men. We have applied Traditional Chinese Medicine CFF-1 in clinical treatments for PCa for several years. Here, we aimed to identify the underlying mechanism of CFF-1 on PCa using network pharmacology and experimental validation. Active ingredients, potential targets of CFF-1 were acquired from the public databases. Subsequently, protein-protein interaction (PPI) and the herbs-active ingredients-target network was constructed. A prognostic model for PCa was also constructed based on key targets. In vitro experiments using PCa cell lines CWR22Rv1 and PC-3 were carried out to validate the potential mechanism of CFF-1 on PCa. A total of 112 bioactive compounds and 359 key targets were screened from public databases. PPI and herbs-active ingredients-target network analysis determined 12 genes as the main targets of CFF-1 on PCa. Molecular docking studies indicated that the primary active ingredients of CFF-1 possess strong binding affinity to the top five hub targets. DNMT3B, RXRB and HPRT1 were found to be involved in immune regulation of PCa. In vitro, CFF-1 was found to inhibit PCa cell proliferation, migration, invasion and induce apoptosis via PI3K-Akt, HIF-1, TNF, EGFR-TKI resistance and PD-1 checkpoint signaling pathways. This study comprehensively elucidates the underlying molecular mechanism of CFF-1 against PCa, offering a strong rationale for clinical application of CFF-1 in PCa treatment.