Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the therapeutic characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells generated from human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) when utilized in conjunction with auto-crosslinked hyaluronic acid gel (HA-gel) for the management of intrauterine adhesion (IUA). The goal was to see how this novel therapy could enhance healing and improve outcomes for IUA patients.

Methods: In this study, models of intrauterine adhesion (IUA) were established in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, which were then organized and divided into hUC-MSCs groups. The groups involved: hUC-MSCs/HA-gel group, control group, and HA-gel group. Following treatment, the researchers examined the uterine cavities and performed detailed analyses of the endometrial tissues to determine the effectiveness of the interventions.

Results: The results indicated that in comparison with to the control group, both HA-gel, hUC-MSCs, and hUC-MSCs/HA-gel groups showed partial repair of IUA. However, in a more notable fashion transplantation of hUC-MSCs/HA-gel complex demonstrated significant dual repair effects. Significant outcomes were observed in the group treated with hUC-MSCs and HA-gel, they showed thicker endometrial layers, less fibrotic tissue, and a higher number of endometrial glands. This treatment strategy also resulted in a significant improvement in fertility restoration, indicating a profound therapeutic effect.

Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that both HA-gel, hUC-MSCs, and hUC-MSCs/HA-gel complexes have the potential for partial repair of IUA and fertility restoration caused by endometrium mechanical injury. Nonetheless, the transplantation of the hUC-MSCs/HA-gel complex displayed exceptional dual healing effects, combining effective anti-adhesive properties with endometrial regeneration stimuli.