Our research investigated the effects of hsa-miR-134-5p on glioma progression, focusing on its interaction with the BDNF/ERK signaling pathway. U251 and U87 cell lines were analyzed post-transfection with hsa-miR-134-5p mimics and inhibitors, confirming the miRNA’s binding to BDNF using dual luciferase assays. Q-PCR was employed to measure expression changes, revealing that hsa-miR-134-5p markedly inhibited glioma cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as evidenced by CCK8, monoclonal formation, and Transwell assays. Scratch tests and Western blotting demonstrated hsa-miR-134-5p’s modulation of the BDNF/ERK pathway and associated decrease in MMP2/9 protein levels. Flow cytometry suggested that hsa-miR-134-5p might also block the G0/S phase transition. In vivo studies using nude mice corroborated the tumor-suppressing effects of hsa-miR-134-5p, which were negated by elevated BDNF levels. Comparative protein analysis across groups confirmed the pathway’s significance in tumorigenesis. Our findings identify hsa-miR-134-5p as a key molecule impeding glioma cell growth by curtailing the BDNF/ERK pathway, with the reversal by BDNF upregulation pointing to the potential of therapeutically exploiting the hsa-miR-134-5p/BDNF axis in glioma care.