Research Paper Volume 16, Issue 8 pp 6652—6672

Associations among NMR-measured inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and accelerated aging in cardiac catheterization patients

Henry Raab1, , Elizabeth R. Hauser2, , Lydia Coulter Kwee2, , Svati H. Shah2, , William E. Kraus2, , Cavin K. Ward-Caviness1, ,

  • 1 Center for Public Health and Environmental Assessment, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
  • 2 Duke University Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27701, USA

Received: July 14, 2023       Accepted: March 13, 2024       Published: April 23, 2024
How to Cite

Copyright: © 2024 Raab et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Research into aging has grown substantially with the creation of molecular biomarkers of biological age that can be used to determine age acceleration. Concurrently, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assessment of biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism provides researchers with new ways to examine intermediate risk factors for chronic disease. We used data from a cardiac catheterization cohort to examine associations between biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and accelerated aging assessed using both gene expression (Transcriptomic Age) and DNA methylation (Hannum Age, GrimAge, Horvath Age, and Phenotypic Age). Linear regression models were used to associate accelerated aging with each outcome (cardiometabolic health biomarkers) while adjusting for chronological age, sex, race, and neighborhood socioeconomic status. Our study shows a robust association between GlycA and GrimAge (5.71, 95% CI = 4.36, 7.05, P = 7.94 × 10−16), Hannum Age (1.81, 95% CI = 0.65, 2.98, P = 2.30 × 10−3), and Phenotypic Age (2.88, 95% CI = 1.91, 3.87, P = 1.21 × 10−8). We also saw inverse associations between apolipoprotein A-1 and aging biomarkers. These associations provide insight into the relationship between aging and cardiometabolic health that may be informative for vulnerable populations.


CHD: Coronary Heart Disease; CVD: Cardiovascular Disease; DNAm: DNA methylation; HDL: High-density Lipoprotein; LDL: Low-density Lipoprotein; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; VIF: Various Inflation Factor.